HyperDic: jurisprudence

English > 2 senses of the word jurisprudence:
NOUNcognitionjurisprudence, law, legal philosophythe branch of philosophy concerned with the law and the principles that lead courts to make the decisions they do
groupjurisprudence, lawthe collection of rules imposed by authority
jurisprudence > pronunciation
Rhymesabeyance ... virulence: 273 rhymes with ahns...
English > jurisprudence: 2 senses > noun 1, cognition
MeaningThe branch of philosophy concerned with the law and the principles that lead courts to make the decisions they do.
Synonymslaw, legal philosophy
Narrowercontract lawThat branch of jurisprudence that studies the rights and obligations of parties entering into contracts
corporation lawThat branch of jurisprudence that studies the laws governing corporations
matrimonial lawThat branch of jurisprudence that studies the laws governing matrimony
patent lawThat branch of jurisprudence that studies the laws governing patents / patents
BroaderphilosophyThe rational investigation of questions about existence and knowledge and ethics
Spanishciencias del derecho, derecho, jurisprudencia
Adjectivesjurisprudentialrelating to the science or philosophy of law or a system of laws
Nounsjurista legal scholar versed in civil law or the law of nations
jurista public official authorized to decide questions brought before a court of justice
English > jurisprudence: 2 senses > noun 2, group
MeaningThe collection of rules imposed by authority.
Example "the great problem for jurisprudence to allow freedom while enforcing order"
Category ofBakke decisionA ruling by the Supreme Court on affirmative action
Bill of RightsA statement of fundamental rights and privileges (especially the first ten amendments to the United States Constitution)
Bureau of Justice Assistance, BJAThe bureau in the Department of Justice that assists local criminal justice systems to reduce or prevent crime and violence and drug abuse
Conservative JudaismJews who keep some of the requirements of the Mosaic law but allow for adaptation of other requirements (as some of the dietary laws) to fit modern circumstances
Department of Justice, Justice Department, Justice, DoJThe United States federal department responsible / responsible for enforcing federal laws / laws (including the enforcement of all civil rights legislation)
Eighteenth AmendmentAn amendment to the Constitution of the United States adopted in 1920
Federal Bureau of Investigation, FBIA federal law enforcement agency that is the principal investigative arm of the Department of Justice
Fifth AmendmentAn amendment to the Constitution of the United States that imposes restrictions on the government's prosecution of persons accused / accused of crimes
First AmendmentAn amendment to the Constitution of the United States guaranteeing the right of free expression / expression
Fourteenth AmendmentAn amendment to the Constitution of the United States adopted in 1868
Jane DoeAn unknown or fictitious woman who is a party to legal proceedings
John DoeAn unknown or fictitious man who is a party to legal proceedings
Nineteenth AmendmentAn amendment to the Constitution of the United States adopted in 1920
Richard RoeAn unknown or fictitious party to legal proceedings
Riot ActA former English law requiring mobs to disperse after a magistrate reads the law to them
Scopes trialA highly publicized trial in 1925 when John Thomas Scopes violated a Tennessee state law by teaching evolution in high school
Supreme Court, Supreme Court of the United States, United States Supreme CourtThe highest federal court in the United States
United States Code, U. S. CodeA consolidation and codification by subject matter of the general and permanent laws of the United States
United States Constitution, U.S. Constitution, US Constitution, Constitution, Constitution of the United StatesThe constitution written at the Constitutional Convention in Philadelphia in 1787 and subsequently ratified by the original thirteen states
abatement of a nuisance, nuisance abatement(law) the removal or termination or destruction of something that has been found to be a nuisance
accretion(law) an increase / increase / increase in a beneficiary's share in an estate (as when a co-beneficiary dies or fails to meet some condition or rejects the inheritance)
acquittalA judgment of not guilty
acquittance, releaseA legal document evidencing the discharge of a debt or obligation
act, enactmentA legal document codifying the result of deliberations of a committee or society or legislative body
actual damages, compensatory damages, general damages(law) compensation for losses that can readily be proven to have occurred and for which the injured party has the right to be compensated
actual evictionThe physical ouster of a tenant / tenant from the leased premises
actual possession(law) immediate and direct physical control over property
adjective, proceduralRelating to court practice and procedure as opposed to the principles of law
administrative hearingA hearing that takes place outside the judicial process before hearing examiners who have been granted judicial authority specifically for the purpose of conducting such hearings
administrative lawThe body of rules and regulations and orders and decisions created by administrative agencies of government
adoptionA legal proceeding that creates a parent-child relation between persons not related by blood
advice and consentA legal expression in the United States Constitution that allows the Senate to constrain the President's / President's powers of appointment and treaty-making
advocate, counsel, counselor, counsellor, counselor-at-law, pleaderA lawyer who pleads / pleads cases in court
advowsonThe right in English law of presenting a nominee to a vacant ecclesiastical benefice
affidavitwritten declaration made under oath
affirmationA judgment by a higher court that the judgment of a lower court was correct and should stand
affirmative pleadingAny defensive pleading that affirms / affirms facts rather than merely denying the facts alleged by the plaintiff
aggrieveinfringe on the rights of
alibi(law) a defense by an accused person purporting to show that he or she could not have committed the crime in question
alienabletransferable to another owner
alienation(law) the voluntary and absolute transfer of title and possession of real property from one person to another
allegation(law) a formal accusation against somebody (often in a court of law)
alterable(of the punishment ordered by a court) capable of being changed to one less severe
alternative pleading, pleading in the alternativeA pleading that alleges facts so separate that it is difficult to determine which facts the person intends to rely on
amicus curiae, friend of the courtAn adviser to the court on some matter of law who is not a party to the case
amicus curiae briefA brief presented by someone interested in influencing the outcome of a lawsuit but who is not a party to it
amnesty, pardon, free pardonThe formal act of liberating someone
amnestygrant a pardon / pardon to (a group of people)
ancestral, hereditary, patrimonial, transmissibleinherited or inheritable by established rules (usually legal rules) of descent
annulment, invalidation(law) a formal termination (of a relationship or a judicial proceeding etc)
answerThe principal pleading by the defendant in response to plaintiff's complaint
anti-drug lawA law forbidding the sale or use of narcotic drugs
anti-racketeering law, Racketeer Influenced and Corrupt Organizations Act, RICO Act, RICOlaw intended to eradicate organized crime by establishing strong sanctions and forfeiture provisions
antitrust caseA legal action brought against parties who are charged with limiting free competition in the market place
antitrust legislation, antitrust lawlaw intended to promote free competition in the market place by outlawing monopolies
appeal(law) a legal proceeding in which the appellant resorts to a higher court for the purpose of obtaining a review of a lower court decision and a reversal of the lower court's judgment or the granting / granting of a new trial
appellate, appellantOf or relating to or taking account of appeals (usually legal appeals)
appointment(law) the act of disposing of property by virtue of the power of appointment
appropriation billA legislative act proposing to authorize the expenditure of public funds for a specified purpose
arbitration(law) the hearing and determination of a dispute by an impartial referee agreed to by both parties (often used to settle disputes between labor and management)
assignee(law) the party to whom something is assigned (e.g., someone to whom a right or property is legally transferred)
assignmentThe instrument by which a claim or right or interest or property is transferred from one person to another
assignor(law) the party who makes an assignment
assizeAn ancient writ issued by a court of assize to the sheriff for the recovery of property
assumed name, fictitious name, Doing Business As, DBA(law) a name under which a corporation conducts business that is not the legal name of the corporation as shown in its articles of incorporation
attachmentA writ authorizing the seizure of property that may be needed for the payment of a judgment in a judicial proceeding
attestationThe action of bearing witness
attornAcknowledge a new land owner as one's landlord
attorney generalThe chief law officer of a country or state
award, awardingA grant made by a law court
bailThe legal system that allows an accused person to be temporarily released from custody (usually on condition that a sum of money guarantees their appearance at trial)
bail outFree on bail
bank-depositor relationThe responsibility of a bank to act in the best interests of the depositors
bankruptcyA legal process intended to insure equality among the creditors of a corporation declared to be insolvent
bar(law) a railing that encloses the part of the courtroom where the judges and lawyers sit and the case is tried
barratryThe offense of vexatiously persisting in inciting lawsuits and quarrels
barristerA British or Canadian lawyer who speaks in the higher courts of law on behalf of either the defense or prosecution
bench(law) the seat for judges in a courtroom
bench warrant, arrest warrantA warrant authorizing law enforcement officials to apprehend an offender and bring that person to court
bequest, legacy(law) a gift of personal property by will
bigamyHaving two spouses at the same time
bill, measureA statute in draft before it becomes law
bill of ParticularsThe particular events to be dealt with in a criminal trial
bill of attainderA legislative act finding a person guilty of treason or felony without a trial
bill of saleA deed transferring personal property
bind overOrder a defendant to be placed in custody pending the outcome of a proceedings against him or her
blue lawA statute regulating work on Sundays
blue sky lawA state law regulating the sale of securities in an attempt to control the sale of securities in fraudulent enterprises / enterprises
bottle billA statute that would require merchants to reclaim used bottles
brief, legal briefA document stating the facts and points of law of a client's case
building codeSet of standards established and enforced by local government for the structural safety of buildings
cachet, lettre de cachetA warrant formerly issued by a French king who could warrant imprisonment or death in a signed letter under his seal
capacitatemake legally capable or qualify in law
cause of actionA claim sufficient to demand judicial attention
caveat(law) a formal notice filed with a court or officer to suspend a proceeding until filer is given a hearing
certiorari, writ of certiorariA common ... / common law writ issued by a superior court to one of inferior jurisdiction demanding the record of a particular case
challenge, take exceptionRaise a formal objection in a court of law
champertyAn unethical agreement between an attorney and client that the attorney would sue and pay the costs of the client's suit in return for a portion of the damages awarded
chance-medleyAn unpremeditated killing of a human being in self defense
chargeinstruct (a jury) about the law, its application, and the weighing of evidence
chief justiceThe judge who presides over a supreme court
circuit(law) a judicial division of a state or the United States (so-called because originally / originally judges traveled and held court in different locations)
circuit court of appealsOne of the twelve federal United States courts of appeals that cover a group of states known as a 'circuit'
circumstantial evidence, indirect evidenceevidence providing only a basis for inference about the fact in dispute
citationA summons that commands the appearance of a party at a proceeding
citation(law) the act of citing / citing (as of spoken words or written passages or legal precedents etc.)
citizenshipThe status of a citizen with rights and duties
civil contemptA failure to follow a court order that benefits someone else
civil deathThe legal status of a person who is alive but who has been deprived of the rights and privileges of a citizen or a member of society
civil lawThe body of laws established by a state or nation for its own regulation
civil libertyfundamental individual right protected by law and expressed as immunity from unwarranted governmental interference
civil rightRight or rights belonging to a person by reason of citizenship including especially the fundamental freedoms and privileges guaranteed by the 13th and 14th amendments and subsequent acts of Congress including the right to legal and social and economic equality
civil suitA lawsuit alleging violations / violations of civil law by the defendant
civil unionA voluntary union for life (or until divorce) of adult parties of the same sex
class action, class-action suitA lawsuit brought by a representative member of a large / large / large group of people on behalf of all members of the group
clientA person who seeks the advice of a lawyer
codicilA supplement to a will
color of law, colour of lawA mere semblance of legal right
combination in restraint of trade(law) any monopoly / monopoly or contract or combination or conspiracy intended to restrain commerce (which are illegal according to antitrust laws of the United States)
common-law marriageA marriage relationship created by agreement and cohabitation rather than by ceremony
common law, case law, precedentA system of jurisprudence based on judicial precedents rather than statutory laws
commutation, re-sentencing(law) the reduction in severity of a punishment imposed by law
commutationA warrant substituting a lesser punishment for a greater one
comparative negligence(law) negligence allocated between the plaintiff and the defendant with a corresponding reduction in damages paid to the plaintiff
competence hearingA hearing to determine legal capacity (to determine whether the defendant can understand the charges and cooperate with a lawyer in preparing a defense)
compromise verdictA verdict resulting from improper compromises between jurors on material issues
concurrent negligence(law) negligence of two of more persons acting independently
concurring opinionAn opinion that agrees with the court's disposition of the case but is written to express a particular judge's reasoning
condemnation(law) the act of condemning (as land forfeited for public use) or judging / judging to be unfit for use (as a food product or an unsafe building)
confession of judgment, confession of judgement, cognovit judgment, cognovit judgementA judgment entered after a written confession by the debtor without the expense of ordinary legal proceedings
confidential adviser-advisee relationThe responsibility of a confidential adviser to act in the best interest of the advisee
connivance, secret approval, tacit consent(law) tacit approval of someone's wrongdoing
consensualExisting by consent
consent decreeAn agreement between two parties that is sanctioned by the court
conservator-ward relationThe responsibility of a conservator to act in the best interests of the ward
constructive possession(law) having the power and intention to have and control property but without direct control or actual presence upon it
contemptA willful disobedience to or disrespect for the authority of a court or legislative body
contempt of CongressDeliberate obstruction of the operation of the federal legislative branch
contempt of courtdisrespect for the rules of a court of law
contractor(law) a party to a contract
contributory negligence(law) behavior by the plaintiff that contributes to the harm resulting from the defendant's negligence
contumacyWillful refusal to appear before a court or comply with a court order
conveytransmit a title or property
conveyancedocument effecting a property transfer
conveyancerA lawyer who specializes in the business of conveying properties
convictFind or declare guilty
corpus delictiThe body of evidence that constitute the offence
corroborating evidenceAdditional evidence or evidence of different kind that supports a proof already offered in a proceeding
counterclaimA claim filed in opposition to another claim in a legal action
counterclaimSet up a claim / claim in opposition to a previous claim / claim
counterpleaA plaintiff's reply to a defendant's plea
countersuitA suit brought against someone who has sued you
court, courtroomA room in which a lawcourt sits
court orderA writ issued by a court of law requiring a person to do something or to refrain from doing something
courthouseA building that houses judicial courts
covert(of a wife) being under the protection of her husband
criminal contemptAn act of disrespect that impedes the administration of justice
criminal lawThe body of law dealing with crimes and their punishment
criminal negligence, culpable negligence(law) recklessly acting without reasonable / reasonable / reasonable caution and putting another person at risk of injury or death (or failing to do something with the same consequences)
criminal possession(law) possession for which criminal sanctions are provided because the property may not lawfully be possessed or may not be possessed under certain circumstances
criminal suitA lawsuit alleging violations of criminal law by the defendant
cross-examination(law) close questioning of a hostile witness in a court of law to discredit or throw a new light on the testimony already provided in direct examination
curfewAn order that after a specific time certain activities (as being outside on the streets) are prohibited
custody battlelitigation to settle custody of the children of a divorced couple
custody caseA legal action to determine custody (usually of children following a divorce)
death warrantA warrant to execute the death sentence
debarmentThe act of prevention by legal means
debentureA certificate or voucher acknowledging a debt / debt
declaration(law) unsworn statement / statement that can be admitted in evidence in a legal transaction
decree, edict, fiat, order, rescriptA legally binding command or decision entered on the court record (as if issued by a court or judge)
decree nisiA decree issued on a first petition for divorce
deed, deed of conveyance, titleA legal document signed and sealed / sealed and delivered to effect a transfer of property and to show the legal right to possess it
deed pollA deed made and executed by only one party
default judgment, default judgement, judgment by default, judgement by defaultA judgment entered in favor of the plaintiff when the defendant defaults (fails to appear in court)
defective pleadingAny pleading that fails to conform in form or substance to minimum standards of accuracy or sufficiency
defendant, suspectA person or institution against whom an action is brought in a court of law
defense, defence, denial, demurrerA defendant's answer or plea denying the truth of the charges against him
defense attorney, defense lawyerThe lawyer representing the defendant
delinquency, juvenile delinquencyAn antisocial misdeed in violation of the law by a minor
demur, demurral, demurrer(law) a formal objection to an opponent's pleadings
demurEnter a demurrer
demurrer(law) any pleading that attacks the legal sufficiency of the opponent's pleadings
deposition(law) a pretrial interrogation of a witness
derivative instrument, derivativeA financial instrument whose value is based on another security
derogation(law) the partial taking ... / taking away of the effectiveness of a law
devise(law) a gift of real property by will
dilatory pleaA plea that delays the action without settling the cause of action
diplomatic immunityexemption from taxation or normal processes of law that is offered to diplomatic personnel in a foreign country
direct evidenceevidence (usually the testimony of a witness) directly related to the fact in dispute
direct examination(law) the initial questioning of a witness by the party that called the witness
directed verdictA verdict entered by the court in a jury trial without consideration / consideration by the jury
director-stockholder relationThe responsibility of corporate directors to act in the best interests of stockholders
disbarmentThe act of expelling a lawyer from the practice of law
disclaimer(law) a voluntary repudiation of a person's legal claim to something
discovery(law) compulsory pretrial disclosure of documents relevant to a case
dissent(law) the difference of one judge's opinion from that of the majority
dissenting opinionAn opinion that disagrees / disagrees with the court's disposition of the case
dissolution of marriageAn annulment of a marriage
divestitureAn order to an offending party to rid itself of property
divorce, divorcementThe legal dissolution of a marriage
divorce lawyerA lawyer specializing in actions for divorce or annulment
dockAn enclosure in a court of law where the defendant sits during the trial
docket(law) the calendar of a court
docketmake a summary or abstract of a legal document and inscribe it in a list
docketplace on the docket for legal action
domicile, legal residence(law) the residence where you have your permanent home or principal establishment and to where, whenever you are absent, you intend to return
double jeopardyThe prosecution of a defendant for a criminal offense for which he has already been tried
drug warconflict between law enforcement and those who deal in illegal drugs
due process, due process of law(law) the administration of justice according to established rules and principles
easement(law) the privilege of using something that is not your own (as using another's land as a right of way to your own land)
effect, force(of a law) having legal validity
eminent domainThe right of the state / state to take private property for public use
enabling act, enabling clauseA provision in a law that confers on appropriate officials the power to implement or enforce the law
enabling legislationlegislation that gives appropriate officials the authority to implement or enforce the law
enactment, passageThe passing of a law by a legislative body
enfeoffmentUnder the feudal system, the deed by which a person was given land in exchange for a pledge of service
entitlementRight granted by law or contract (especially a right to benefits)
entrapmentA defense that claims the defendant would not have broken the law if not tricked into doing it by law enforcement officials
equal opportunityThe right to equivalent opportunities for employment regardless of race or color or sex or national origin
equal protection of the lawsA right guaranteed by the Fourteenth Amendment to the US Constitution and by the due-process clause of the Fifth Amendment
escheatA reversion to the state / state (as the ultimate owner of property) in the absence of legal heirs
evasive answer(law) an answer by a defendant that fails to admit or deny the allegations set forth in the complaint / complaint
eviction, dispossession, legal ousterThe expulsion of someone (such as a tenant / tenant) from the possession of land by process of law
eviction, constructive evictionaction by a landlord that compels a tenant / tenant to leave the premises (as by rendering the premises unfit for occupancy)
evidence(law) all the means by which any alleged matter of fact whose truth is investigated at judicial trial is established or disproved
evidentiarypertaining to or constituting evidence
execution, writ of executionA routine court order that attempts to enforce the judgment that has been granted to a plaintiff by authorizing a sheriff to carry it out
execution, execution of instrument(law) the completion of a legal instrument (such as a contract or deed) by signing it (and perhaps sealing and delivering it) so that it becomes legally binding and enforceable
executor-heir relationThe responsibility of an executor (or administrator) of an estate to act in the best interests of the heir
extenuate, palliate, mitigatelessen or to try to lessen the seriousness or extent of
fair hearingA hearing that is granted in extraordinary situations where the normal judicial process would be inadequate to secure due process because the person would be harmed or denied their rights before a judicial remedy became available (as in deportation or loss of welfare benefits)
false imprisonment(law) confinement without legal authority
false pretense, false pretence(law) an offense involving intent to defraud and false / false / false representation and obtaining property as a result of that misrepresentation
false verdictA manifestly unjust / unjust / unjust verdict
farm billA statute that would regulate farm production and prices
fiduciary relationThe legal relation that exists when one person justifiably places reliance on another whose aid or protection is sought in some matter
fieri faciasA writ ordering a levy on the belongings of a debtor to satisfy the debt
file, registerrecord in a public office or in a court of law
filerA party who files a notice with a law court
filiateFix the paternity of
filibuster(law) a tactic for delaying or obstructing legislation / legislation by making long speeches
final judgment, final decisionA judgment disposing of the case before the court
findingThe decision of a court on issues of fact or law
finding of law, conclusion of lawA finding as to the applicability of a rule of law to particular facts
fire codeSet of standards established and enforced by government for fire prevention and safety in case of fire as in fire escapes etc
franchise, enfranchisementA statutory right or privilege granted to a person or group by a government (especially the rights of citizenship and the right to vote)
freedom from cruel and unusual punishmentA right guaranteed by the 8th amendment to the US Constitution
freedom from discriminationImmunity from discrimination on the basis of race or sex / sex or nationality / nationality or religion or age
freedom from double jeopardyA civil right guaranteed by the Fifth Amendment to the US Constitution
freedom from involuntary servitudeA civil right guaranteed by the 13th amendment to the US Constitution
freedom from search and seizureA right guaranteed by the 4th amendment to the US Constitution
freedom from self-incrimination, privilege against self incriminationThe civil right (guaranteed by the Fifth Amendment to the United States Constitution) to refuse to answer questions or otherwise give testimony against yourself
freedom of assemblyThe right to peaceably assemble and to petition the government for redress of grievances
freedom of religionA civil right guaranteed by the First Amendment to the US Constitution
freedom of speechA civil right guaranteed by the First Amendment to the US Constitution
freedom of the pressA right guaranteed by the First Amendment to the US Constitution
freedom to bear armsA right guaranteed by the 2nd amendment to the US Constitution
fundamental law, organic law, constitutionlaw determining the fundamental political principles of a government
fungibleOf goods or commodities
gag lawAny law that limits freedom of the press
gag orderA court order restricting information or comment by the participants involved in a lawsuit
game lawA regulation intended to manage or preserve game animals
garnishmentA court order to an employer to withhold all or part of an employee's wages and to send the money to the court or to the person who won a lawsuit against the employee
general verdictAn ordinary verdict declaring which party prevails without any special findings of fact
geographical indication, GI(law) a name or sign used on certain products which corresponds to a specific geographical location or origin
get offCause to be acquitted
giveaccord by verdict
grand juryA jury to inquire into accusations of crime and to evaluate the grounds for indictments
grant, assignment(law) a transfer of property by deed of conveyance
habeas corpusThe civil right to obtain a writ of habeas corpus as protection against illegal imprisonment
habeas corpus, writ of habeas corpusA writ ordering a prisoner to be brought before a judge
hearing(law) a proceeding (usually by a court) where evidence is taken for the purpose of determining an issue of fact and reaching a decision based on that evidence
hearsay evidenceevidence based on what someone has told the witness and not of direct knowledge
heirloom(law) any property that is considered by law or custom as inseparable from an inheritance is inherited with that inheritance
homestead lawA law conferring privileges on owners of homesteads
human right(law) any basic right or freedom to which all human beings are entitled and in whose exercise a government may not interfere (including rights ... / rights to life and liberty as well as freedom of thought and expression and equality before the law)
hung juryA jury that is unable to agree on a verdict (the result is a mistrial)
impoundment, impounding, internment, poundageplacing private property in the custody of an officer of the law
imprison, incarcerate, lag, immure, put behind bars, jail, jug, gaol, put away, remandlock up or confine, in or as in a jail
imprisonmentputting someone in prison or in jail as lawful / lawful / lawful punishment
incompetent, unqualifiedLegally not qualified or sufficient
infection(international law) illegality that taints or contaminates a ship or cargo rendering it liable to seizure
inheritance, heritageThat which is inherited
injunction, enjoining, enjoinment, cease and desist order(law) a judicial remedy issued in order to prohibit a party from doing or continuing to do a certain activity
interdict, interdictionA court order prohibiting a party from doing a certain activity
interest, stake(law) a right or legal share of something
international law, law of nationsThe body of laws governing relations / relations between nations
intervenor(law) a party who interposes in a pending proceeding
intervention(law) a proceeding that permits a person to enter into a lawsuit already in progress
intestateHaving made no legally valid will before death or not disposed of by a legal will
intra viresWithin the legal power or authority or a person or official or body etc
jactitation(law) a false / false / false boast that can harm others
joint resolutionA resolution passed by both houses of Congress which becomes legally binding when signed by the Chief Executive (or passed over the Chief Executive's veto)
jointure, legal jointure(law) an estate secured to a prospective wife as a marriage settlement in lieu of a dower
judge advocate generalThe senior legal advisor to a branch of the military
judgment, judgement, judicial decision(law) the determination by a court of competent jurisdiction on matters submitted to it
judgment in personam, judgement in personam, personal judgment, personal judgementA judgment rendered against an individual (or corporation) for the payment of money damages
judgment in rem, judgement in remA judgment pronounced on the status of some particular subject / subject or property or thing (as opposed to one pronounced on persons)
judgment of dismissal, judgement of dismissal, dismissalA judgment disposing of the matter without a trial
judgment on the merits, judgement on the meritsJudgment rendered through analysis and adjudication of the factual issues presented
judicial branchThe branch of the United States government responsible / responsible for the administration of justice
judicial reviewreview by a court of law of actions of a government official or entity or of some other legally appointed person or body or the review by an appellate court of the decision of a trial court
jurist, legal expertA legal scholar versed in civil law or the law of nations
jury systemA legal system for determining the facts at issue in a law suit
jus sanguinisThe principle that a person's nationality at birth is the same as that of his natural parents
jus soliThe principle that a person's nationality at birth is determined by the place of birth
justice of the peaceA local magistrate with limited powers
kidnapping, snatch(law) the unlawful / unlawful / unlawful act of capturing and carrying away a person against their will and holding them in false imprisonment
law, practice of lawThe learned profession that is mastered by graduate study in a law school and that is responsible for the judicial system
lawlegal document setting forth rules governing a particular kind of activity
law enforcementEnsuring obedience to the laws
law firmA firm of lawyers
law of the landA phrase used in the Magna Carta to refer to the then established law of the kingdom (as distinct from Roman or civil law)
law practiceThe practice of law
lawgiver, lawmakerA maker of laws
lawsuit, suit, case, cause, causaA comprehensive term for any proceeding in a court of law whereby an individual seeks a legal remedy
lawyer, attorneyA professional person authorized to practice law
lawyer-client relation, attorney-client relationThe responsibility of a lawyer to act in the best interests of the client
legal action, action, action at lawA judicial proceeding brought by one party against another
legal codeA code of laws adopted by a state / state or nation
legal document, legal instrument, official document, instrument(law) a document that states some contractual relationship or grants some right
legal dutyActs which the law requires be done or forborne
legal feeA fee paid for legal service
legal power, jurisdiction(law) the right and power to interpret and apply the law
legal principle, judicial principle, judicial doctrine(law) a principle underlying the formulation of jurisprudence
legal profession, bar, legal communityThe body of individuals qualified to practice law in a particular jurisdiction
legal relationA professional relation that is regulated by law (as between a lawyer and a client)
legal representationpersonal representation that has legal status
legal representativeA personal representative with legal standing (as by power of attorney or the executor of a will)
legal separation, separation(law) the cessation of cohabitation of man and wife (either by mutual agreement / agreement or under a court order)
legal separation, judicial separationA judicial decree regulating the rights and responsibilities of a married couple living apart
legal statusA status defined by law
legal systemA system for interpreting and enforcing the laws
legalization, legalisation, legitimationThe act of making lawful / lawful
legislation, legislating, lawmakingThe act of making or enacting laws
legislation, statute lawlaw enacted by a legislative body
legislative act, statuteAn act passed by a legislative body
legislatorsomeone who makes or enacts laws
legitimationThe act of rendering a person legitimate
letters of administrationlegal document naming someone to administer an estate when no executor has been named
letters testamentaryA legal document from a probate ... / probate court or court officer informing you of your appointment as executor of a will and empowering you to discharge those responsibilities
libelA false / false and malicious publication printed for the purpose of defaming a living person
libelThe written statement of a plaintiff explaining the cause of action (the defamation) and any relief he seeks
license, licence, permitA legal document giving official permission to do something
life estate, estate for life(law) an estate whose duration is limited to the life of the person holding it
limitation(law) a time period after which suits cannot be brought
liquidator, receiver(law) a person (usually appointed by a court of law) who liquidates assets or preserves them for the benefit of affected parties
lis pendensA pending lawsuit
litigant, litigator(law) a party to a lawsuit
litigation, judicial proceedingA legal proceeding in a court
living willA document written by someone still legally capable requesting that he should be allowed to die if subsequently severely disabled or suffering terminal illness
maintenance, criminal maintenanceThe unauthorized interference in a legal action by a person having no interest in it (as by helping one party with money or otherwise to continue the action) so as to obstruct justice or promote unnecessary litigation or unsettle the peace of the community
majorOf full legal age
majority opinionThe opinion joined by a majority of the court (generally known simply as 'the opinion')
mandamus, writ of mandamusAn extraordinary writ commanding an official to perform a ministerial act that the law recognizes as an absolute duty and not a matter for the official's discretion
mandate, authorization, authorisationA document giving an official instruction or command
mandatory injunctioninjunction requiring the performance of some specific act
manifestA customs document listing the contents put on a ship or plane
marital statusThe condition of being married or unmarried
maritime law, marine law, admiralty lawThe branch of international law that deals with territorial and international waters or with shipping or with ocean fishery etc.
marriage, matrimony, union, spousal relationship, wedlockThe state of being a married couple voluntarily joined / joined for life (or until divorce)
martial lawThe body of law imposed by the military over civilian affairs (usually in time of war or civil crisis)
mens rea, malice aforethought(law) criminal intent
mercantile law, commercial law, law merchantThe body of rules applied to commercial transactions
messuage(law) a dwelling house and its adjacent buildings and the adjacent land used by the household
military courtA judicial court of commissioned officers for the discipline and punishment of military personnel
military lawThe body of laws and rules of conduct administered by military courts for the discipline, trial, and punishment of military personnel
minor, nonaged, underagenot of legal age
mistrialA trial that is invalid or inconclusive
mitigating circumstance(law) a circumstance that does not exonerate a person but which reduces the penalty associated with the offense
monition, process of monitionA summons issued after the filing of a libel or claim directing all parties concerned to show cause why the judgment asked for should not be granted
mootOf no legal significance (as having been previously decided)
mootA hypothetical case that law students argue as an exercise
moot courtA mock court where law students argue hypothetical cases
mortgage deeddeed embodying a mortgage
munimentsdeeds and other documentary evidence of title to land
murder convictionconviction for murder
naturalization, naturalisationThe proceeding whereby a foreigner is granted citizenship
neglect of duty(law) breach of a duty
negotiable instrumentAn unconditional order or promise to pay an amount of money
next friend(law) a person who acts on behalf of an infant or disabled person
night courtA criminal court (in large cities) that sits at night
nominal damages(law) a trivial sum (usually $1.00) awarded as recognition that a legal injury was sustained (as for technical violations of a contract)
non prosequitur, non prosA judgment entered in favor of the defendant when the plaintiff has not continued his action (e.g., has not appeared in court)
notary, notary publicsomeone legally empowered to witness signatures and certify a document's validity and to take depositions
novation(law) the replacement of one obligation by another by mutual agreement of both parties
nuisance(law) a broad legal concept including anything that disturbs the reasonable use of your property or endangers / endangers life and health or is offensive
null, voidlacking any legal or binding force
obiter dictum, dictumAn opinion voiced by a judge on a point of law not directly bearing on the case in question and therefore / therefore not binding
objection(law) a procedure whereby a party to a suit says that a particular line of questioning or a particular witness or a piece of evidence or other matter is improper and should not be continued and asks the court to rule on its impropriety or illegality
obstruction of justiceimpeding those who seek justice in a court (as by trying to influence or intimidate any juror or witness or officer of the court)
occupational safety and health act, federal job safety lawA law passed by the United States Congress that created the Occupational Safety and Health Administration to prevent employees from being injured or contracting diseases in the course of their employment
opinion, rulingThe reason for a court's judgment (as opposed to the decision itself)
opinion, legal opinion, judgment, judgementThe legal document stating the reasons for a judicial decision
ordinanceA statute enacted by a city government
ordinaryA judge of a probate court
ousterA wrongful / wrongful dispossession
owner, proprietor(law) someone who owns (is legal possessor of) a business
panel, venire(law) a group of people summoned for jury service (from whom a jury will be chosen)
paralegal, legal assistantA person with specialized training who assists lawyers
pardon, amnestyA warrant granting release from punishment for an offense
pardongrant a pardon / pardon to
parole(law) a conditional release from imprisonment that entitles the person to serve the remainder of the sentence outside the prison as long as the terms of release are complied with
partner relationThe responsibility of partners to act in one another's best interests
partyA person involved in legal proceedings
passportA document issued by a country to a citizen allowing that person to travel abroad and re-enter the home country
patent, letters patentAn official document granting a right or privilege
patent rightThe right granted by a patent / patent
patent systemA legal system for protecting the rights of inventors
paternity suit, bastardy proceedingA lawsuit filed to determine the father of a child born out of wedlock (and to provide for the support / support of the child once paternity is determined)
penal codeThe legal code governing crimes and their punishment
permanent injunction, final injunctioninjunction issued on completion of a trial
petit jury, petty juryA jury of 12 to determine the facts and decide the issue in civil or criminal proceedings
plaintiff, complainantA person who brings an action in a court of law
pleaAn answer indicating why a suit should be dismissed
plea(law) a defendant's answer by a factual matter (as distinguished from a demurrer)
plea-bargainagree to plead guilty in return for a lesser charge
plea bargain, plea bargaining(criminal law) a negotiation in which the defendant agrees to enter a plea of guilty to a lesser charge and the prosecutor agrees to drop a more serious charge
pleadEnter a plea, as in courts of law
pleadmake an allegation in an action or other legal proceeding, especially answer the previous pleading of the other party by denying facts therein stated or by alleging new facts
pleading(law) a statement in legal and logical form stating something on behalf of a party to a legal proceeding
police courtA court that has power to prosecute for minor offenses and to bind over for trial in a superior court anyone accused / accused of serious offenses
poor lawA law providing support for the poor
power of attorneyA legal instrument authorizing someone to act as the grantor's agent
preemption, pre-emptionThe judicial principle asserting the supremacy of federal over state legislation on the same subject / subject
preferGive preference to one creditor over another
premeditation(law) thought and intention to commit a crime well in advance of the crime
presentment, notificationAn accusation of crime made by a grand jury on its own initiative
presumption(law) an inference of the truth of a fact from other facts proved or admitted or judicially / judicially noticed
pretrial, pretrial conference(law) a conference held before the trial begins to bring the parties together to outline discovery proceedings and to define the issues to be tried
prevailing partyThe party in a lawsuit who obtains a judgment in their own favor
privilege(law) the right to refuse / refuse to divulge information obtained in a confidential relationship
probable cause(law) evidence sufficient to warrant an arrest or search / search and seizure
probate, probate willA judicial certificate saying that a will is genuine and conferring on the executors the power to administer the estate
probateEstablish the legal validity of (wills and other documents)
probate courtA court having jurisdiction over the probate of wills and the administration of estates
probation(law) a way of dealing with offenders without imprisoning them
proceeding, legal proceeding, proceedings(law) the institution of a sequence of steps by which legal judgments are invoked
production(law) the act of exhibiting in a court of law
prohibitionA law forbidding the sale of alcoholic beverages
promulgator(law) one who promulgates laws (announces a law as a way of putting it into execution)
prosecution, criminal prosecutionThe institution and conduct of legal proceedings against a defendant for criminal behavior
prosecutor, public prosecutor, prosecuting officer, prosecuting attorneyA government official who conducts criminal prosecutions on behalf of the state
proveObtain probate of
provost courtA military court for trying people charged with minor offenses in an occupied area
public defenderA lawyer who represents indigent defendants at public expense
public lawA law affecting the public at large
punitive damages, exemplary damages, smart money(law) compensation in excess of actual damages (a form of punishment awarded in cases of malicious or willful misconduct)
quarter sessionsA local court with criminal jurisdiction and sometimes administrative functions
question of law, matter of lawA disputed legal contention that is generally left for a judge to decide
quitclaim, quitclaim deeddocument transferring title or right or claim to another
quo warrantoA hearing to determine by what authority someone has an office or franchise or liberty
quotient verdictAn improper and unacceptable kind of compromise verdict
rape convictionconviction for rape
rationale, principle(law) an explanation of the fundamental reasons (especially an explanation of the working of some device in terms of laws of nature)
re-examineQuestion after cross-examination by opposing counsel
rebutter, rebuttal(law) a pleading by the defendant in reply to a plaintiff's surrejoinder
receiver-creditor relationThe responsibility of receiver or trustee in bankruptcy to act in the best interests of the creditor
receivershipA court action that places property under the control of a receiver during litigation so that it can be preserved for the benefit of all
recission, rescission(law) the act of rescinding
recognizance, recognisance(law) a security entered into before a court with a condition to perform some act required by law
reconvictconvict anew
recordA document that can serve as legal evidence of a transaction
recusation, recusal(law) the disqualification of a judge or jury by reason of prejudice or conflict of interest
recusation(law) an objection grounded on the judge's relationship to one of the parties
recusechallenge or except to a judge as being incompetent or interested, in canon and civil law
recusedisqualify oneself (as a judge) in a particular case
redirect examination, reexamination(law) questioning of a witness by the party that called the witness after that witness has been subject to cross-examination
refereeAn attorney appointed by a court to investigate and report on a case
rejoinder(law) a pleading made by a defendant in response to the plaintiff's replication
relation back, relation(law) the principle that an act done at a later time is deemed by law to have occurred at an earlier time
relief(law) redress awarded by a court
remission, remitment, remit(law) the act of remitting (especially the referral of a law case to another court)
render, submitmake over as a return
replication(law) a pleading made by a plaintiff in reply to the defendant's plea or answer
reprieve, respiteThe act of reprieving
reprieveA warrant granting postponement (usually to postpone the execution of the death sentence)
republishrevive (a cancelled will or a libel)
res gestaerule of evidence that covers words that are so closely associated with an occurrence that the words are considered part of the occurrence and as such their report does not violate the hearsay rule
residuaryentitled to the residue of an estate (after payment of debts and specific gifts)
resisting arrestPhysical efforts to oppose a lawful arrest
retaliatory evictionAn eviction in reprisal for the tenant's / tenant's good-faith complaints against the landlord
retrialA new trial in which issues already litigated and to which the court has already rendered a verdict or decision are reexamined by the same court
reversalA judgment by a higher court that the judgment of a lower court was incorrect and should be set aside
reversion(law) an interest in an estate that reverts to the grantor (or his heirs) at the end of some period (e.g., the death of the grantee)
reversionaryOf or relating to or involving a reversion (especially a legal reversion)
reversioner(law) a party who is entitled to an estate in reversion
revertibleTo be returned to the former owner or that owner's heirs
review(law) a judicial reexamination of the proceedings of a court (especially by an appellate court)
right of electionIn probate law
right of entryThe legal right to take possession of real estate in a peaceable manner
right of offset(banking) the legal right of a bank to seize deposited funds to cover a loan that is in default
right of privacyA legal right (not explicitly provided in the United States Constitution) to be left alone
right of re-entryThe legal right to resume possession (a right that was reserved when a former possession was parted with)
right to an attorneyA civil right guaranteed by the 6th amendment to the US Constitution
right to confront accusorsA right guaranteed by the 6th amendment to the US Constitution
right to due processA right guaranteed by the Fifth Amendment to the US Constitution
right to speedy and public trial by juryA civil right guaranteed by the 6th amendment to the US Constitution
right to vote, vote, suffrageA legal right guaranteed by the 15th amendment to the US Constitution
robbery convictionconviction for robbery
rule of evidence(law) a rule of law whereby any alleged matter of fact that is submitted for investigation at a judicial trial is established or disproved
rule of lawA state of order in which events conform to the law
sanitary code, health codeSet of standards established and enforced by government for health requirements as in plumbing etc
satisfaction(law) the payment of a debt or fulfillment of an obligation
scienter(law) deliberately or knowingly
scire faciasA judicial writ based on some record and requiring the party against whom it is brought to show cause why the record should not be enforced or annulled / annulled
search warrantA warrant authorizing law enforcement officials to search for objects or people involved in the commission of a crime and to produce them in court
securities lawThe body of laws governing the issuance and selling of securities
seditionAn illegal action inciting resistance / resistance to lawful authority and tending to cause the disruption or overthrow of the government
sentence, condemn, doompronounce a sentence on (somebody) in a court of law
sequestrationA writ that authorizes the seizure of property
sexual assault, sexual abuse, sex crime, sex offenseA statutory offense that provides that it is a crime to knowingly cause another person to engage in an unwanted sexual act by force or threat
ship's papersofficial papers which a ship is legally required to have
sidebar(law) a courtroom conference between the lawyers and the judge that is held out of the jury's hearing
solicitorA British lawyer who gives legal advice and prepares legal documents
special actA legislative act that applies only to a particular person or particular district
special jury, blue ribbon juryA jury whose members are selected for special knowledge for a case involving complicated issues
special pleading(law) a pleading that alleges new facts in avoidance of the opposing allegations
special verdictA verdict rendered on certain specific factual issues posed by the court without finding for one party or the other
specification(patent law) a document drawn up by the applicant for a patent of invention that provides an explicit and detailed description of the nature and use of an invention
spoliation(law) the intentional destruction of a document or an alteration of it that destroys its value as evidence
state's evidenceevidence for the prosecution in criminal proceedings
statute bookA record of the whole body of legislation in a given jurisdiction
statute of limitationsA statute prescribing the time period during which legal action can be taken
statutory lawThe body of laws created by legislative statutes
stayA judicial order forbidding some action until an event occurs or the order is lifted
stay of executionAn order whereby a judgment is precluded from being executed for a specific period of time
stipulation, judicial admission(law) an agreement or concession made by parties in a judicial proceeding (or by their attorneys) relating to the business before the court
stultifyprove to be of unsound mind or demonstrate someone's incompetence
submission(law) a contention presented by a lawyer to a judge or jury as part of the case he is arguing
subornationperjured testimony that someone was persuaded to give
subornation of perjury(law) inducing someone to make a false oath as part of a judicial proceeding
subpoena, subpoena ad testificandumA writ issued by court authority to compel the attendance of a witness at a judicial proceeding
subpoena duces tecumA writ issued by a court at the request of one of the parties to a suit
subrogation(law) the act of substituting of one creditor for another
substantive, essentialDefining rights and duties as opposed to giving the rules by which rights and duties are established
summary judgment, summary judgement, judgment on the pleadings, judgement on the pleadingsA judgment rendered by the court prior to a verdict because no material issue of fact exists and one party or the other is entitled to a judgment as a matter of law
summation, summing up, rundownA concluding summary (as in presenting a case before a law court)
summons, processA writ issued by authority of law
superior courtAny court that has jurisdiction above an inferior court
supreme court, state supreme court, high courtThe highest court in most states of the United States
surrebutter, surrebuttal(law) a pleading by the plaintiff in reply to the defendant's rebutter
surrejoinder(law) a pleading by the plaintiff in reply to the defendant's rejoinder
tax lawThe body of laws governing taxation
tax systemA legal system for assessing and collecting taxes
temporary injunction, interlocutory injunctioninjunction issued during a trial to maintain the status quo or preserve the subject matter of the litigation until the trial is over
test case, test suitA representative legal action whose outcome is likely to become a precedent
testateHaving made a legally valid will before death
testify, attest, take the stand, bear witnessGive testimony in a court of law
testify, bear witness, prove, evidence, showProvide evidence for
testimonyA solemn statement / statement made under oath
therefor(in formal usage, especially legal usage) for that or for it
ticketA summons issued to an offender (especially to someone who violates a traffic regulation)
title deedA legal document proving a person's right to property
tort, civil wrong(law) any wrongdoing for which an action for damages may be brought
trade billA statute that would regulate foreign trade
traffic courtA court that has power to prosecute for traffic offenses
transcript, copyA reproduction of a written record (e.g. of a legal or school record)
transferee(law) someone to whom a title or property is conveyed
transferor(law) someone who conveys a title or property to another
trial(law) the determination of a person's innocence or guilt by due process of law
trial attorney, trial lawyerA lawyer who specializes in defending clients before a court of law
trial courtThe first court before which the facts of a case are decided
trial judgeA judge in a trial court
trierOne (as a judge) who examines and settles a case
trust busting(law) government activities seeking to dissolve corporate trusts and monopolies (especially under the United States antitrust laws)
trust deed, deed of trustA written instrument legally conveying property to a trustee often used to secure an obligation such as a mortgage or promissory note
trustee, legal guardianA person (or institution) to whom legal title to property is entrusted to use for another's benefit
trustee-beneficiary relationThe responsibility of a trustee to act in the best interests of the beneficiary
ultra viresBeyond the legal power or authority of a person or official or body etc
unalterableOf a sentence
unduenot appropriate or proper (or even legal) in the circumstances
use, enjoyment(law) the exercise of the legal right to enjoy / enjoy the benefits of owning property
usufructA legal right to use and derive profit from property belonging to someone else provided that the property itself is not injured in any way
uxor, ux.(legal terminology) the Latin word for wife
venire faciasA judicial writ ordering a sheriff to summon people for jury duty
venterThe womb
verdict, finding of fact(law) the findings of a jury on issues of fact submitted to it for decision
verification(law) an affidavit attached to a statement / statement confirming the truth of that statement / statement
verifyattach or append a legal verification to (a pleading or petition)
vested interest(law) an interest in which there is a fixed right to present or future enjoyment and that can be conveyed to another
vexatious litigationlitigation shown to have been instituted maliciously and without probable cause
visitation rightThe right granted by a court to a parent (or other relative) who is deprived of custody of a child to visit the child on a regular basis
voting system, electoral systemA legal system for making democratic choices
vouchee(law) a person called into court to defend a title
warrantA writ from a court commanding police to perform specified acts
waste, permissive waste(law) reduction in the value of an estate caused by act or neglect
will, testamentA legal document declaring a person's wishes regarding the disposal of their property when they die
witness, attestant, attestor, attestator(law) a person who attests to the genuineness of a document or signature by adding their own signature
witness(law) a person who testifies under oath in a court of law
writ, judicial writ(law) a legal document issued by a court or judicial officer
writ of detinueA writ ordering the release of goods that have been unlawfully detained
writ of electionA writ ordering the holding of an election
writ of errorA judicial writ from an appellate court ordering the court of record to produce the records of trial
writ of prohibitionA judicial writ from a higher court ordering a lower court not to exercise jurisdiction in a particular case
writ of rightA writ ordering that land be restored to its rightful owner
written agreementA legal document summarizing the agreement between parties
Partslawlegal document setting forth rules governing a particular kind of activity
NarrowerMosaic law, Law of MosesThe laws (beginning with the Ten Commandments) that God gave to the Israelites / Israelites through Moses
administrative lawThe body of rules and regulations and orders and decisions created by administrative agencies of government
canon law, ecclesiastical lawThe body of codified laws governing the affairs of a Christian church
civil lawThe body of laws established by a state or nation for its own regulation
common law, case law, precedentA system of jurisprudence based on judicial precedents rather than statutory laws
international law, law of nationsThe body of laws governing relations / relations between nations
law of the landA phrase used in the Magna Carta to refer to the then established law of the kingdom (as distinct from Roman or civil law)
martial lawThe body of law imposed by the military over civilian affairs (usually in time of war or civil crisis)
mercantile law, commercial law, law merchantThe body of rules applied to commercial transactions
military lawThe body of laws and rules of conduct administered by military courts for the discipline, trial, and punishment of military personnel
securities lawThe body of laws governing the issuance and selling of securities
shariah, shariah law, sharia, sharia law, Islamic lawThe code of law derived from the Koran and from the teachings and example of Mohammed
statutory lawThe body of laws created by legislative statutes
tax lawThe body of laws governing taxation
Broadercollection, aggregation, accumulation, assemblageSeveral things grouped together or considered as a whole
Spanishjurisprudencia, ley
Catalanjurisprudència, llei
Nounsjurista legal scholar versed in civil law or the law of nations
jurista public official authorized to decide questions brought before a court of justice

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