Meaning | A branch of applied mathematics concerned with the collection and interpretation of quantitative data and the use of probability theory to estimate population parameters. |
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Category of | Bayes' postulate | (statistics) the difficulty of applying Bayes' theorem is that the probabilities of the different causes are seldom known, in which case it may be postulated that they are all equal (sometimes known as postulating the equidistribution of ignorance) |
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Bayes' theorem | (statistics) a theorem describing how the conditional probability of a set of possible causes for a given observed event can be computed from knowledge of the probability of each cause and the conditional probability of the outcome of each cause |

Bernoulli's law, law of large numbers | (statistics) law stating that a large number of items taken at random from a population will (on the average) have the population statistics |

Kendall partial rank correlation | A nonparametric measure of partial correlation |

Kendall test | Any of several nonparametric measures of correlation (used when the assumptions of standard correlational analysis are not met) |

Poisson distribution | A theoretical distribution that is a good approximation to the binomial distribution when the probability is small and the number of trials is large |

analysis of variance, ANOVA | A statistical method for making simultaneous comparisons between two or more means |

arithmetic mean, first moment, expectation, expected value | The sum of the values of a random variable divided by the number of values |

average, norm | A statistic describing the location of a distribution |

average, mean | Approximating the statistical norm or average or expected value |

bimodal | Of a distribution |

binomial distribution, Bernoulli distribution | A theoretical distribution of the number of successes in a finite set of independent trials with a constant probability of success |

binomial theorem | A theorem giving the expansion of a binomial raised to a given power |

biserial correlation coefficient, biserial correlation | A correlation coefficient in which one variable is many-valued and the other is dichotomous |

co-vary | Vary in the same time period (of two random variables) |

coefficient of concordance | A coefficient of agreement (concordance) between different sets of rank orderings of the same set of things |

correlation coefficient, coefficient of correlation, correlation | A statistic representing how closely two variables co-vary |

correlation matrix | A matrix giving the correlations between all pairs of data sets |

correlation table | A two-way tabulation of the relations between correlates |

correlational analysis | The use of statistical correlation to evaluate the strength of the relations between variables |

covariance | (statistics) the mean value of the product of the deviations of two variates from their respective means |

covariation | (statistics) correlated variation |

cross section | A sample meant / meant to be representative of a whole population |

curvilinear correlation, nonlinear correlation, skew correlation | Any correlation in which the rates of change of the variables is not constant |

curvilinear regression | The relation between variables when the regression equation is nonlinear (quadratic / quadratic or higher order) |

decile | (statistics) any of nine points that divided a distribution of ranked scores into equal intervals where each interval contains one-tenth of the scores |

degree of freedom | (statistics) an unrestricted variable in a frequency distribution |

demographic | A statistic characterizing human populations (or segments of human populations broken down by age or sex or income etc.) |

dependent variable | (statistics) a variable in a logical or mathematical expression whose value depends on the independent variable |

deviation | The difference between an observed value and the expected value of a variable or function |

distribution, statistical distribution | (statistics) an arrangement of values of a variable showing their observed or theoretical frequency of occurrence |

ergodic | positive recurrent aperiodic state of stochastic systems |

factor analysis | Any of several methods for reducing correlational data to a smaller number of dimensions or factors |

first-order correlation | A partial correlation in which the effects of only one variable are removed (held constant) |

frequency distribution | A distribution of observed frequencies of occurrence of the values of a variable |

geometric mean | The mean of n numbers expressed as the n-th root of their product |

grab sample | A single sample or measurement taken at a specific time or over as short a period as feasible |

harmonic mean | The mean of n numbers expressed as the reciprocal of the arithmetic mean of the reciprocals of the numbers |

independent variable, experimental variable | (statistics) a variable whose values are independent of changes in the values of other variables |

information theory | (computer science) a statistical theory dealing with the limits and efficiency of information processing |

least squares, method of least squares | A method of fitting a curve to data points so as to minimize the sum of the squares of the distances of the points from the curve |

linear regression, rectilinear regression | The relation between variables when the regression equation is linear |

mean, mean value | An average of n numbers computed by adding some function of the numbers and dividing by some function of n |

mean deviation, mean deviation from the mean | The arithmetic mean of the absolute values of deviations from the mean of a distribution |

median, median value | The value below which 50% of the cases fall |

median, average | relating to or constituting the middle value of an ordered set of values (or the average of the middle two in a set with an even number of values) |

modal, average | relating to or constituting the most frequent value in a distribution |

mode, modal value | The most frequent value of a random variable |

moment | The n-th moment of a distribution is the expected value of the n-th power of the deviations from a fixed value |

multicollinearity | A case of multiple regression in which the predictor variables are themselves highly correlated |

multiple correlation coefficient | An estimate of the combined influence of two or more variables on the observed (dependent) variable |

multiple regression, multiple correlation | A statistical technique that predicts values of one variable on the basis of two or more other variables |

multivariate | pertaining to any procedure involving two or more variables |

multivariate analysis | A generic term for any statistical technique used to analyze data from more than one variable |

negative correlation, indirect correlation | A correlation in which large values of one variable are associated with small values of the other |

nonparametric | not involving an estimation of the parameters of a statistic |

nonparametric statistic, distribution free statistic | A statistic computed without knowledge of the form or the parameters of the distribution from which observations are drawn |

nonsignificant | attributable to chance |

normal curve, bell-shaped curve, Gaussian curve, Gaussian shape | A symmetrical curve representing the normal distribution |

normal distribution, Gaussian distribution | A theoretical distribution with finite mean and variance |

outlier | An extreme / extreme deviation from the mean |

parametric statistic | Any statistic computed by procedures that assume the data were drawn from a particular distribution |

partial correlation | A correlation between two variables when the effects of one or more related variables are removed |

percentile, centile | (statistics) any of the 99 numbered points that divide an ordered set of scores into 100 parts each of which contains one-hundredth of the total |

phi coefficient, phi correlation, fourfold point correlation | An index of the relation between any two sets of scores that can both be represented on ordered binary dimensions (e.g., male-female) |

population, universe | (statistics) the entire aggregation of items from which samples can be drawn |

positive correlation, direct correlation | A correlation in which large values of one variable are associated with large values of the other and small with small |

predictor variable | A variable that can be used to predict the value of another variable (as in statistical regression) |

probability theory, theory of probability | The branch of applied mathematics that deals with probabilities |

product-moment correlation coefficient, Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient | The most commonly used method of computing a correlation coefficient between variables that are linearly related |

quartile | (statistics) any of three points that divide an ordered distribution into four parts each containing one quarter of the scores |

random sample | A sample grabbed at random |

random sample | A sample in which every element in the population has an equal chance of being selected |

rank-order correlation coefficient, rank-order correlation, rank-difference correlation coefficient, rank-difference correlation | The most commonly used method of computing a correlation coefficient between the ranks of scores on two variables |

regression, simple regression, regression toward the mean, statistical regression | The relation between selected values of x and observed values of y (from which the most probable value of y can be predicted for any value of x) |

regression analysis | The use of regression to make quantitative predictions of one variable from the values of another |

regression coefficient | When the regression line is linear (y = ax + b) the regression coefficient is the constant (a) that represents the rate of change of one variable (y) as a function of changes in the other (x) |

regression equation, regression of y on x | The equation representing the relation between selected values of one variable (x) and observed values of the other (y) |

regression line, regression curve | A smooth curve fitted to the set of paired data in regression analysis |

sample distribution, sample, sampling | items selected at random from a population and used to test hypotheses about the population |

sampling | (statistics) the selection of a suitable sample for study / study |

second moment | The expected value of the square of the deviations of a random variable from the point of origin |

significant | Too closely correlated to be attributed to chance and therefore / therefore indicating a systematic relation |

split-half correlation, chance-half correlation | A correlation coefficient calculated between scores on two halves of a test |

spurious correlation | A correlation between two variables (e.g., between the number of electric motors in the home and grades at school) that does not result from any direct relation between them (buying electric motors will not raise grades) but from their relation to other variables |

standard deviation | The square root of the variance |

statistic | A datum that can be represented numerically |

statistical method, statistical procedure | A method of analyzing or representing statistical data |

statistician, actuary | someone versed in the collection and interpretation of numerical data (especially someone who uses statistics to calculate insurance premiums) |

stochastic | Being or having a random variable |

stratified sample, representative sample, proportional sample | The population is divided into strata and a random sample is taken from each stratum |

subnormal | Below normal or average |

subpopulation | A population that is part of a larger / larger population |

supernormal | Exceeding the normal or average |

tau coefficient of correlation, Kendall's tau, Kendall rank correlation | A nonparametric measure of the agreement between two rankings |

tetrachoric correlation coefficient, tetrachoric correlation | A correlation coefficient computed for two normally distributed variables that are both expressed as a dichotomy |

time series | A series of values of a variable at successive times |

unimodal | Having a single mode |

variance | The second moment around the mean |

vital statistics | data relating to births and deaths and health and diseases and marriages |

weight, weighting | (statistics) a coefficient assigned to elements of a frequency distribution in order to represent their relative importance |

Parts | statistical method, statistical procedure | A method of analyzing or representing statistical data |
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Narrower | biometrics, biometry, biostatistics | A branch of biology that studies biological phenomena and observations by means of statistical analysis |
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correlation, correlational statistics | A statistical relation between two or more variables such that systematic changes in the value of one variable are accompanied by systematic changes in the other |

nonparametric statistics | The branch of statistics dealing with variables without making assumptions about the form or the parameters of their distribution |

Broader | applied mathematics, applied math | The branches of mathematics that are involved in the study of the physical or biological or sociological world |
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Spanish | estadística, estadísticas |
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Catalan | estadística, estadístic |
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Adjectives | statistical | of or relating to statistics |
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Nouns | statistician | someone versed in the collection and interpretation of numerical data (especially someone who uses statistics to calculate insurance premiums) |
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statistician | a mathematician who specializes in statistics |