HyperDic: natural_philosophy

English > 1 sense of the expression natural philosophy:
NOUNcognitionnatural philosophy, physicsthe science of matter and energy and their interactions
English > natural philosophy: 1 sense > noun 1, cognition
MeaningThe science of matter and energy and their interactions.
Synonymphysics
Category ofBohr theory(physics) a theory of atomic structure that combined Rutherford's model with the quantum theory
Bose-Einstein statistics(physics) statistical law obeyed by a system of particles whose wave function is not changed when two particles are interchanged (the Pauli exclusion principle does not apply)
Coriolis effect(physics) an effect whereby a body moving in a rotating frame of reference experiences the Coriolis force acting perpendicular to the direction of motion and to the axis of rotation
Coriolis force(physics) a force due to the earth's rotation
Dalton's law, Dalton's law of partial pressures, law of partial pressures(chemistry and physics) law stating that the pressure exerted by a mixture of gases equals the sum of the partial pressures of the gases in the mixture
Fermi-Dirac statistics(physics) law obeyed by a systems of particles whose wave function changes when two particles are interchanged (the Pauli exclusion principle applies)
Gay-Lussac's law, Charles's law, law of volumes(physics) the density of an ideal gas at constant pressure varies inversely with the temperature
Hooke's law(physics) the principle that (within the elastic limit) the stress applied to a solid is proportional to the strain produced
Kirchhoff's laws(physics) two laws governing electric networks in which steady currents flow
Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution law, Boltzmann distribution law(physics) a law expressing the distribution of energy among the molecules of a gas in thermal equilibrium
Planck's law(physics) the basis of quantum theory
Planck's radiation law(physics) an equation that expresses the distribution of energy in the radiated spectrum of an ideal black body
absorber(physics) material in a nuclear reactor that absorbs radiation
absorption(physics) the process in which incident radiated energy is retained without reflection or transmission on passing through a medium
absorptivity, absorption factor(physics) the property of a body that determines the fraction of the incident radiation or sound flux absorbed or absorbable by the body
abundance(physics) the ratio of the number of atoms of a specific isotope of an element to the total number of isotopes present
acceleration(physics) a rate of increase of velocity
activated, excited(of e.g. a molecule) made reactive or more reactive
adiabaticOccurring without loss or gain of heat / heat
aeolotropic, eolotropicHaving properties with different values along different axes
aerodynamicOf or relating to aerodynamics
amplitude(physics) the maximum displacement of a periodic wave
angular acceleration(physics) the rate of change of the angular velocity of a rotating body
angular velocity(physics) the rate of change of the angular position of a rotating body
antinode(physics) the point of maximum displacement in a periodic system
atom(physics and chemistry) the smallest component of an element having the chemical properties of the element
atomic spectrum(physics) a spectrum of radiation caused by electron transitions within an atom
attractiveHaving the properties of a magnet
attractor, attracter(physics) a point in the ideal multidimensional phase space that is used to describe a system toward which the system tends to evolve regardless of the starting conditions of the system
backscatterscatter (radiation) by the atoms of the medium through which it passes
bombardDirect high energy particles or radiation against
boundheld with another element, substance or material in chemical or physical union
center of buoyancy, centre of buoyancy, center of immersion, centre of immersion(physics) the center of mass of the immersed part of ship or other floating object
chaos(physics) a dynamical system that is extremely sensitive to its initial conditions
classical(physics) relating to or based on concepts that preceded the theories of relativity and quantum mechanics
coefficient of elasticity, modulus of elasticity, elastic modulus(physics) the ratio of the applied stress to the change in shape of an elastic body
cohesion(physics) the intermolecular force that holds together the molecules in a solid or liquid
collision, hit(physics) a brief event in which two or more bodies come together
conservation(physics) the maintenance of a certain quantities unchanged during chemical reactions or physical transformations
containment(physics) a system designed to prevent the accidental release of radioactive material from a reactor
corpuscular theory, corpuscular theory of light(physics) the theory that light is transmitted as a stream of particles
couple(physics) something joined by two equal and opposite forces that act along parallel lines
criticalAt or of a point at which a property or phenomenon suffers an abrupt change especially having enough mass to sustain / sustain a chain ... / chain reaction
crystallize, crystallise, crystalize, crystaliseCause to form crystals or assume crystalline form
deceleration(physics) a rate of decrease in velocity
decoupleEliminate airborne shock waves from (an explosive)
demagnetize, demagnetise, degaussmake nonmagnetic
depolarize, depolariseEliminate the polarization of
diabaticInvolving a transfer of heat
diffusion(physics) the process in which there is movement of a substance from an area of high concentration of that substance to an area of lower concentration
dip, angle of dip, magnetic dip, magnetic inclination, inclination(physics) the angle that a magnetic needle makes with the plane of the horizon
disintegrate, decay, decomposeLose a stored charge, magnetic flux, or current
disintegrateCause to undergo fission or lose particles
duality, wave-particle duality(physics) the property of matter and electromagnetic radiation that is characterized by the fact that some properties can be explained best by wave theory and others by particle theory
dynamicOf or relating to dynamics
dynamical system(physics) a phase space together with a transformation of that space
electrifyCharge (a conductor) with electricity
elementary particle, fundamental particle(physics) a particle that is less complex than an atom
energy, free energy(physics) a thermodynamic quantity equivalent to the capacity of a physical system to do work
fiducialUsed as a fixed standard of reference for comparison or measurement
field theory(physics) a theory that explains a physical phenomenon in terms of a field and the manner in which it interacts with matter or with other fields
fissionable, fissilecapable of undergoing nuclear fission
flux density, flux(physics) the number of changes in energy flow across a given surface per unit area
force(physics) the influence that produces a change in a physical quantity
freeunconstrained or not chemically bound in a molecule or not fixed and capable of relatively unrestricted motion
freeze, freeze out, freeze downchange from a liquid / liquid to a solid when cold
gas constant, universal gas constant, R(physics) the universal constant in the gas equation
gravitational constant, universal gravitational constant, constant of gravitation, G(physics) the universal constant relating force to mass and distance in Newton's law of gravitation
gravitational mass(physics) the mass of a body as measured by its gravitational attraction for other bodies
gravity, gravitation, gravitational attraction, gravitational force(physics) the force of attraction between all masses in the universe
gravity wave, gravitation wave(physics) a wave that is hypothesized to propagate / propagate gravity and to travel at the speed of light
ground state(physics) the lowest energy state of an atom or other particle
hodoscope(physics) scientific instrument that traces the path of a charged particle
hydrodynamicOf or relating to hydrodynamics
hyperfineExtremely fine or thin, as in a spectral line split into two or more components
identicalHaving properties with uniform values along all axes
immiscible, non-miscible, unmixable(chemistry, physics) incapable of mixing
induce, inductproduce electric current by electrostatic or magnetic processes
inertia(physics) the tendency of a body to maintain its state of rest or uniform motion unless acted upon by an external force
inertial mass(physics) the mass of a body as determined by the second law of motion from the acceleration of the body when it is subjected to a force that is not due to gravity
interaction, fundamental interaction(physics) the transfer of energy between elementary particles or between an elementary particle and a field or between fields
isotropy, symmetry(physics) the property of being isotropic
kinetic theory, kinetic theory of gases(physics) a theory that gases consist of small particles in random motion
law of gravitation, Newton's law of gravitation(physics) the law that states any two bodies attract each other with a force that is directly proportional to the product of their masses and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them
law of thermodynamics(physics) a law governing the relations between states of energy in a closed system
light, visible light, visible radiation(physics) electromagnetic radiation that can produce a visual sensation
liquefy, flux, liquifyBecome liquid or fluid when heated
liquefy, liquify, liquidize, liquidisemake (a solid substance) liquid, as by heating
magnet(physics) a device that attracts iron and produces a magnetic field
magnetic dipole moment(physics) a current loop gives rise to a magnetic field characteristic of a magnetic dipole
magnetize, magnetisemake magnetic
mass-energy equivalence(physics) the principle that a measured quantity of mass is equivalent (according to relativity theory) to a measured quantity of energy
mass energy(physics) the mass of a body regarded relativistically as energy
meniscus(physics) the curved upper surface of a nonturbulent liquid / liquid in a vertical tube
mesonic, mesicOf or pertaining to a meson
metastabilityThe quality of a physical system that persists in its existing equilibrium when undisturbed (or only slightly disturbed) but able to pass to a more stable equilibrium when sufficiently disturbed
metastable(of physical systems) continuing in its present state of equilibrium unless sufficiently disturbed to pass to a more stable state of equilibrium
metric function, metricA function of a topological space that gives, for any two points in the space, a value equal to the distance between them
miscible, mixable(chemistry, physics) capable of being mixed
modulus(physics) a coefficient that expresses how much of a specified property is possessed by a specified substance
molecule(physics and chemistry) the simplest structural unit of an element or compound
node(physics) the point of minimum displacement in a periodic system
noncriticalnot critical
nonfissionablenot capable of undergoing fission
nuclearOf or relating to or constituting / constituting the nucleus of an atom
nuclear reaction(physics) a process that alters the energy or structure or composition of atomic nuclei
nuclear reactor, reactor(physics) any of several kinds of apparatus that maintain and control a nuclear reaction for the production of energy or artificial elements
optical density, transmission density, photographic density, absorbance(physics) a measure of the extent to which a substance transmits light or other electromagnetic radiation
oscillation, vibration(physics) a regular periodic variation in value about a mean
parity, conservation of parity, space-reflection symmetry, mirror symmetry(physics) parity is conserved in a universe in which the laws of physics are the same in a right-handed system of coordinates as in a left-handed system
pencilA figure formed by a set of straight lines or light rays meeting at a point
perturbation(physics) a secondary influence on a system that causes it to deviate slightly
phase space(physics) an ideal space in which the coordinate dimensions represent the variables that are required to describe a system or substance
physicistA scientist trained in physics
polarize, polariseCause to vibrate in a definite pattern
power(physics) the rate of doing work
principle of equivalence(physics) the principle that an observer has no way of distinguishing whether his laboratory is in a uniform gravitational field or is in an accelerated frame of reference
principle of relativity(physics) a universal law that states that the laws of mechanics are not affected by a uniform rectilinear motion of the system of coordinates to which they are referred
quantal, quantizedOf or relating to a quantum or capable of existing in only one of two states
quantize, quantiseapply quantum theory to
quantum(physics) the smallest discrete quantity of some physical property that a system can possess (according to quantum theory)
quantum jump(physics) an abrupt transition of an electron or atom or molecule from one quantum state to another with the emission or absorption of a quantum
quantum theory(physics) a physical theory that certain properties occur only in discrete amounts (quanta)
quark(physics) hypothetical truly fundamental particle in mesons and baryons
quenchReduce the degree of (luminescence or phosphorescence) in (excited molecules or a material) by adding a suitable substance
reactiveParticipating readily in reactions
recombination(physics) a combining of charges or transfer of electrons in a gas that results in the neutralization of ions
relativisticrelating or subject to the special or the general theory of relativity
relativistic mass(physics) the mass of a body in motion relative to the observer
relativity, theory of relativity, relativity theory, Einstein's theory of relativity(physics) the theory that space and time are relative concepts rather than absolute concepts
relaxation, relaxation behavior(physics) the exponential return of a system to equilibrium after a disturbance
reluctance(physics) opposition to magnetic flux (analogous to electric resistance)
reluctivity(physics) the resistance of a material to the establishment of a magnetic field in it
repulsivepossessing the ability to repel
rest mass(physics) the mass of a body as measured when the body is at rest relative to an observer, an inherent property of the body
reversiblecapable of assuming or producing either of two states
reversiblyIn a reversible manner
rheologic, rheologicalOf or relating to rheology
scintillation(physics) a flash of light that is produced in a phosphor when it absorbs a photon or ionizing particle
shear(physics) a deformation of an object in which parallel planes remain parallel but are shifted in a direction parallel to themselves
shearBecome deformed by forces tending to produce a shearing strain
solidifyBecome solid
solidifymake solid or more solid
soliton, soliton wave, solitary wave(physics) a quantum of energy or quasiparticle that can be propagated as a traveling wave in nonlinear systems and is neither preceded nor followed by another such disturbance
spallation(physics) a nuclear reaction in which a bombarded nucleus breaks up into many particles
strain(physics) deformation of a physical body under the action of applied forces
stress(physics) force that produces strain on a physical body
strong interaction, strong force, color force(physics) the interaction that binds protons and neutrons together in the nuclei of atoms
supersymmetry(physics) a theory that tries to link the four fundamental forces
sympathetic vibration(physics) vibration produced by resonance
tension(physics) a stress that produces an elongation of an elastic physical body
theory of gravitation, theory of gravity, gravitational theory, Newton's theory of gravitation(physics) the theory that any two particles of matter attract one another with a force directly proportional to the product of their masses and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them
transformincrease or decrease (an alternating current or voltage)
transformconvert (one form of energy) to another
transient(physics) a short-lived oscillation in a system caused by a sudden change of voltage or current or load
translatesubject to movement in which every part of the body moves parallel to and the same distance as every other point on the body
transmutation(physics) the change of one chemical element into another (as by nuclear decay or radioactive bombardment)
unchargedOf a particle or body or system
unreactive(chemistry) not reacting chemically
viscoelasticHaving viscous as well as elastic properties
wave, undulation(physics) a movement up and down or back and forth
wave front, wavefront(physics) an imaginary surface joining all points in space that are reached at the same instant by a wave propagating / propagating through a medium
wave theory, undulatory theory, wave theory of light(physics) the theory that light is transmitted as waves
weak interaction, weak force(physics) an interaction between elementary particles involving neutrinos or antineutrinos that is responsible for certain kinds of radioactive decay
weakly interacting massive particle, WIMPA hypothetical subatomic particle of large mass that interacts weakly with ordinary matter through gravitation
work(physics) a manifestation of energy
Narroweraeronautics, astronauticsThe theory and practice of navigation through air or space
astronomy, uranologyThe branch of physics that studies celestial bodies and the universe as a whole
biophysicsphysics as applied to biological problems
cryogenics, cryogenyThe branch of physics that studies the phenomena that occur at very low temperatures
crystallographyThe branch of science that studies the formation and structure of crystals
electromagnetism, electromagneticsThe branch of physics concerned with electromagnetic phenomena
electronicsThe branch of physics that deals with the emission and effects of electrons and with the use of electronic devices
electrostaticsThe branch of physics that deals with static electricity
mechanicsThe branch of physics concerned with the motion / motion of bodies in a frame of reference
nuclear physics, atomic physics, nucleonicsThe branch of physics that studies the internal structure of atomic nuclei
opticsThe branch of physics that studies the physical properties of light
particle physics, high-energy physics, high energy physicsThe branch of physics that studies subatomic particles and their interactions
plasma physicsThe branch of physics concerned with matter in its plasma phase
quantum physicsThe branch of physics based on quantum theory
rheologyThe branch of physics that studies the deformation and flow of matter
solid-state physicsThe branch of physics that studies the properties of materials in the solid state
statistical mechanicsThe branch of physics that makes theoretical predictions about the behavior of macroscopic systems on the basis of statistical laws governing its component particles
thermodynamicsThe branch of physics concerned with the conversion of different forms of energy
Broadernatural scienceThe sciences involved in the study of the physical world and its phenomena
Spanishfilosofía natural, física
Catalanfísica

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